Bulk conveyance systems are high capital value assets that offer true optimisation opportunities at the hands of specialist design engineers. An optimal design blends well-grounded theoretical knowledge with a practical understanding of the challenges faced during construction as well as during the service life of the asset. To achieve this, all aspects of the planning, design and operation must be thoroughly understood and addressed during the design process.

C2D offers extensive experience in the fields of conceptual design, feasibility assessments and economic optimisation of bulk transfer schemes, hydraulic analysis, large diameter pipeline structural design, cathodic protection planning and design, specification development, and advanced computer aided design (CAD) making use of the latest 3D design software and BIM principles. The unique combination of skills makes C2D a ‘one stop shop’ ideally suited to produce efficient and accurate designs. This industry knowledge translates into our philosophy to produce designs that will enable easy future inspections, monitoring and management aimed at producing systems that have the least cost long term life cycle cost for its owners.  


  • Pre-feasibility and feasibility investigations
  • Scheme optimisation considering initial capital and long term operating and maintenance costs
  • Conceptual planning and design including route and material selection
  • Coordination of support services like topographical surveys, geotechnical investigations, way leave applications and environmental and social surveys on a managed service or turn key basis
  • Detail design, including the following:
    • Functional design specifications to establish sound operating philosophies
    • Hydraulic and surge analysis
    • Structural design and optimization of large diameter pipelines
    • Valve selection, sizing and layout design
    • Production of layout drawings and 3D geospatial design integration
    • Production of longitudinal section drawings
    • 3D CAD Design and detailing of chambers and appurtenances
    • Production of standard and special details
  • Pipeline installation inspection, construction monitoring and commissioning
  • Development of pipeline operation and maintenance manuals
  • Development of project specifications, bills of quantities and data sheets for inclusion in contract documentation

Pump Stations

  • Pump station conceptual planning and design
  • Intake and pipeline hydraulic assessment
  • 3D Design and detailing of pump station structural, mechanical and electrical components
  • Source and delivery reservoir design and detailing
  • Pump station operating philosophy and associated control and automation instrumentation
  • Pump station installation inspection, construction monitoring and commissioning
  • Development of project specifications, bills of quantities and data sheets for inclusion in contract documentation

Corrosion Protection

  • Assessment to determine the requirement for cathodic protection for both steel and ductile iron pipes
  • Soil resistivity surveys
  • Groundbed surveys
  • Cathodic protection design
  • Cathodic protection installation inspection, construction monitoring and commissioning
  • Pipeline coating and lining selection and specification
  • Cathodic Protection system routine monitoring, inspection and troubleshooting
  • Stray current testing and mitigation

Hydraulic Surge Analysis and System Validation

A change in the steady state operating condition of a fluid system can be caused by planned or unplanned valve, pump or turbine operation, rapid changes in demand or pipe and component failures. These changes are communicated to the system by pressure waves propagating from the point of origin where the change was imposed. After some time, the system attains a new state of equilibrium if the resulting pressure waves have not reached destructive proportions. The terms “surge”, “water hammer” and “transient flows” are used synonymously to describe an unsteady flow of fluids in a pipe system.

Pressure transients can cause extensive damage to fluid conveyance systems. This can range from catastrophic pipeline failures to less obvious and visible, but often wide spread long-term effects like damaged pipeline seals and long-term cyclic fatigue loading. Long-term effects can lead to higher than expected maintenance costs, unexpected periods of non-functionality, reduction in the service life of the infrastructure, increased water loss and even intrusion of contaminants into a distribution system.

A surge analysis must be performed as part of the detailed design of any new pipeline or pumping system. The impact of modifications to existing systems must also be analysed. Hydraulic models compiled as part of the design of a conveyance system should then be calibrated against measured data to verify that design assumptions were correct and the system behaves in accordance with the design.

C2D has extensive surge modelling and system validation experience, offering the following services:

  • Steady state and transient modelling of transfer systems
  • Development of operating and control philosophies to define the functional operation and control of a system
  • Pump and valve selection and specification
  • Development of surge alleviating strategies and specification of surge alleviating equipment
  • Transient monitoring using high frequency pressure loggers
  • System validation and proof of design studies

Condition Assessment

C2D has vast experience in the condition assessment and life cycle maintenance of bulk water pipelines. Recommendations are related to pipeline risk profiles which are based on detailed hydraulic models, corrosivity surveys and representative sampling. C2D can offer complete pipeline condition assessment projects with a combination of the following inspections, which are offered either inhouse or in collaboration with our network of specialist service providers:

  • Soil resistivity and corrosivity surveys
  • Stray current surveys
  • Pipe wall condition assessments (discrete ultrasonic and corrosion mapping)
  • Transient/surge monitoring
  • Flow monitoring
  • Pipeline coating defects survey (ACVG, DCVG, PCM)
  • Close interval survey
  • Drained internal CCTV inspection
  • Valve chamber and pipeline appurtenance inspection
  • Leak detection
  • Internal corrosion coupon installation and long term assessment

Value Engineering

Whenever possible we follow the principles of value engineering to achieve design excellence. The objectives of value engineering are to improve quality, minimize total ownership costs, reduce construction time, make the project easier to construct, ensure safe operations, and assure environmental and ecological goals. We provide the optimum blend of digital design, scheduling, performance, constructability, maintainability, environmental awareness, safety and cost consciousness