C2D offers extensive experience in the fields of conceptual design, feasibility assessments and economic optimisation of bulk transfer schemes, hydraulic analysis, large diameter pipeline structural design, cathodic protection planning and design, specification development, and advanced computer aided design (CAD) making use of the latest 3D design software and BIM principles. The unique combination of skills makes C2D a ‘one stop shop’ ideally suited to produce efficient and accurate designs. This industry knowledge translates into our philosophy to produce designs that will enable easy future inspections, monitoring and management aimed at producing systems that have the least cost long term life cycle cost for its owners.
A change in the steady state operating condition of a fluid system can be caused by planned or unplanned valve, pump or turbine operation, rapid changes in demand or pipe and component failures. These changes are communicated to the system by pressure waves propagating from the point of origin where the change was imposed. After some time, the system attains a new state of equilibrium if the resulting pressure waves have not reached destructive proportions. The terms “surge”, “water hammer” and “transient flows” are used synonymously to describe an unsteady flow of fluids in a pipe system.
Pressure transients can cause extensive damage to fluid conveyance systems. This can range from catastrophic pipeline failures to less obvious and visible, but often wide spread long-term effects like damaged pipeline seals and long-term cyclic fatigue loading. Long-term effects can lead to higher than expected maintenance costs, unexpected periods of non-functionality, reduction in the service life of the infrastructure, increased water loss and even intrusion of contaminants into a distribution system.
A surge analysis must be performed as part of the detailed design of any new pipeline or pumping system. The impact of modifications to existing systems must also be analysed. Hydraulic models compiled as part of the design of a conveyance system should then be calibrated against measured data to verify that design assumptions were correct and the system behaves in accordance with the design.
C2D has extensive surge modelling and system validation experience, offering the following services:
C2D has vast experience in the condition assessment and life cycle maintenance of bulk water pipelines. Recommendations are related to pipeline risk profiles which are based on detailed hydraulic models, corrosivity surveys and representative sampling. C2D can offer complete pipeline condition assessment projects with a combination of the following inspections, which are offered either inhouse or in collaboration with our network of specialist service providers:
Whenever possible we follow the principles of value engineering to achieve design excellence. The objectives of value engineering are to improve quality, minimize total ownership costs, reduce construction time, make the project easier to construct, ensure safe operations, and assure environmental and ecological goals. We provide the optimum blend of digital design, scheduling, performance, constructability, maintainability, environmental awareness, safety and cost consciousness